National Heroes Day Philippines 2012 Essay Help

The celebration of National Heroes Day began during the American Colonial Period. The Philippine Legislature, then dominated by Filipino leaders who represented the national aspiration for independence, first enacted the holiday into law through Act No. 3827 on October 28, 1931. The Act declared the last Sunday of August of every year an official national holiday. However, as far as research has been able to determine, November 30, while already celebrated as Bonifacio Day by virtue of Act No. 2946 s. 1921,[1] was also held to commemorate anonymous heroes of the nation in that same year.[2] It appears that the practice of celebrating Bonifacio Day concurrently with the commemoration of Filipino heroes on November 30 was carried on in subsequent years. For example, on November 30, 1936, President Manuel L. Quezon himself was the guest of honor at the National Heroes Day celebration held at the University of the Philippines.[3]

While National Heroes Day and Bonifacio Day were celebrated on the same day, there were separate celebrations.[4][5] The custom then was to hold the annual formal military review of the cadets (ROTC) of the University of the Philippines, in the presence of officials from the three branches of government[6] while another celebration was held at the Bonifacio Monument in Caloocan.[7] It was on November 30, 1941, the last National Heroes Day commemoration before the beginning of the Second World War in the Pacific, that President Manuel L. Quezon broke protocol and addressed the cadets assembled in the military review at the University of the Philippines, informing them and those present about the precarious situation of the country amidst the Japanese encroachment in neighboring countries.[8]

During the Japanese Occupation of the country, the holiday was still celebrated on the same day. President Jose P. Laurel signed Executive Order No. 20 on March 20, 1942, which set the National Heroes Day on the thirtieth of November. The following year, in an act of silent defiance, President Laurel chose Mount Samat Cemetery in Bataan as the place of the National Heroes Day commemoration on November 30, 1943, implicitly commemorating the Filipino and American forces defeated in that very place in Bataan, and in Corregidor by the Japanese on April 3 and May 6, 1942 respectively. President Laurel’s speech was delivered by Minister of the Interior Arsenio Bonifacio, in which the president honored “them on this day which national custom has consecrated to the memory of those who knew how to sacrifice the interests of self and the rich pleasures of living for the sake of the dignity and welfare of the greatest number.”

On November 30, 1945, the year the Japanese Occupation and the Second World War in the Pacific ended, President Sergio Osmeña delivered a speech on the National Heroes Day in Capas, Tarlac. This was to commemorate the town not only as a prison camp under the Occupation, but also as “a symbol of spiritual resistance, a symbol of faith.”

In 1952, President Elpidio Quirino reverted the date of National Heroes Day back to the last Sunday of August. Through Administrative Order No. 190, s. 1952, he appointed Secretary of Education Cecilio Puton as head of a committee to take charge of the National Heroes Day celebration, which took place on August 31, 1952. He then delivered a speech on the same day at the Philippine Normal College (formerly Philippine Normal University), explaining that the “change has become necessary because of the interest from different sectors of our country to celebrate each hero’s anniversary in order to perpetuate his [Andres Bonifacio’s] name.”

President Corazon C. Aquino’s Administrative Code of 1987 adopted this in Executive Order No. 292, Book 1, Chapter 7, which provided for a list of regular holidays and nationwide special days, setting National Heroes Day as a regular holiday celebrated on the last Sunday of August. The Administrative Code provides that the list of holidays and special days may be “modified by law, order or proclamation.”

On July 24, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law Republic Act No. 9492, which amended Book 1, Chapter 7 of the Administrative Code. By virtue of R.A. 9492, the celebration of National Heroes Day thus falls on the last Monday of August. The rationale behind the move was President Arroyo’s “Holiday Economics” programme,[9] which aimed to reduce work disruptions by moving holidays to the nearest Monday or Friday of the week, thus allowing for longer weekends and boosting domestic leisure and tourism.[10]

Our national heroes are often portrayed as a pantheon of distinct and powerful personalities who have managed to get their names published in our history books by virtue of their words or actions. But National Heroes Day specifies no hero; the law that put into practice the celebration does not name a single one. And this lack of specifics offers an opportunity to celebrate the bravery of not one, not a few, but all Filipino heroes who have braved death or persecution for home, nation, justice, and freedom.

[READ: All the Presidential speeches delivered on National Heroes Day]

Bibliography

_____. “Anonymous heroes are remembered”. The Tribune. December 1, 1931.

_____. “Thousands pay homage to heroes,” The Tribune, December 1, 1936, p. 1.

Adolfo, Maria Cherry Lyn S., “Crafting Filipino Leisure: Tourism Programmes in the Philippines,” Domestic Tourism in Asia: Diversity and Divergence. London, UK: Earthscan, Inc., 2009.

Hurley, John F., Wartime Superior in the Philippines: 1941-1945. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2005.

Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, “Under the presidency of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, the celebration of many national holidays was moved to the nearest Monday or Friday to allow for extended or long weekends,” MoneyPolitics: A Citizen’s guide to Elections, Public Funds, and Governance in the Philippines, accessed on August 24, 2015, link.

Quezon Family Collection. Philippine Press Clippings Volume VII 1940-1945, accessed on August 28, 2015, link.

Quizon, Mona Lisa. “Why celebrate Bonifacio Day?”, Philippine Daily Inquirer, accessed on August 28, 2015, link.

Endnotes

[1] Mona Lisa Quizon, “Why celebrate Bonifacio Day?”, Philippine Daily Inquirer, accessed on August 28, 2015, link.

[2]___, “Anonymous heroes are remembered,” The Tribune, December 1, 1931, p. 1.

[3] ___, “Thousand pay homage to heroes,” The Tribune, December 1, 1936, p. 1.

[4] Quezon Family Collection, Philippine Press Clippings Volume VII 1940-1945, accessed on August 28, 2015, link.

[5] ____, “Thousands pay homage to heroes,” The Tribune, December 1, 1936, p. 1.

[6] John F. Hurley, Wartime Superior in the Philippines: 1941-1945, (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2005), 6-7.

[7] ____, “Thousands pay homage to heroes,” The Tribune, December 1, 1936, p. 1.

[8] John F. Hurley, Wartime Superior in the Philippines: 1941-1945, (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2005), 6-7.

[9] Maria Cherry Lyn S. Adolfo, “Crafting Filipino Leisure: Tourism Programmes in the Philippines,” Domestic Tourism in Asia: Diversity and Divergence, (London, UK: Earthscan, Inc., 2009), p. 249.

[10] Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, “Under the presidency of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, the celebration of many national holidays was moved to the nearest Monday or Friday to allow for extended or long weekends,” MoneyPolitics: A Citizen’s guide to Elections, Public Funds, and Governance in the Philippines, accessed on August 24, 2015, link.


Heroes' Day
Observed by18 countries
TypeNational
DateVarious
FrequencyAnnual

Heroes' Day or National Heroes' Day may refer to a number of commemorations of national heroes in different countries. It is often held on the birthday of a national hero or heroine, or the anniversary of their great deeds that made them heroes.

National Heroes' Day in Angola[edit]

National Heroes Day in Angola is a holiday in Angola on 17 September, the birthday of the national hero Agostinho Neto.

National Heroes Day in the Bahamas[edit]

National Heroes Day in the Bahamas has been a public holiday since 2013. It replaced Discovery Day, which celebrated the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas.

National Heroes' Day in Barbados[edit]

National Heroes' Day is a public holiday in Barbados on April 28.[1]

Heroes' Day in Cape Verde[edit]

Heroes' Day is a public holiday in Cape Verde on 20 January. It commemorates the 1973 assassination of Amílcar Cabral, who is remembered as a hero for fighting western colonialism and exploitation.

Heroes' Day in the Cayman Islands[edit]

The fourth Monday in January is National Heroes' Day in the Cayman Islands; it was proclaimed with the National Heroes Law, providing for the declaration of persons who have rendered exceptional service as national heroes. Numerous Caymanians have been declared national heroes, includes the Hon. James (Jim) Manoah Bodden, Mrs. Sybil I. McLaughlin, Mr. Thomas William Farrington, Mrs. Sybil Joyce Hylton, Mr. Desmond Vere Watler, Ms Mary Evelyn Wood, Cert. Hon. and William Warren Conolly.

Heroes' Day in East Timor[edit]

December 7 is National Heroes Day in East Timor.

Heroes' Day in Indonesia[edit]

Main article: Heroes Day (Indonesia)

Hari Pahlawan is observed every 10 November to commemorate heavy fighting between Indonesian nationalist militias and British Allied forces at Surabaya, East Java on 10 November 1945. This was the first large-scale international armed conflict involving Indonesia after its Proclamation of Independence on 17 August 1945.

Heroes' Day in Jamaica[edit]

Heroes' Day in Jamaica is a holiday celebrated on the 3rd Monday every October. It commemorates seven national heroes from Jamaican history.

Heroes' Day in Kenya[edit]

Main article: Heroes' Day (Kenya)

Mashujaa Day is a national holiday in Kenya, which is celebrated to collectively honour all those who contributed towards the struggle for Kenya's independence. It is observed on 20 October.

Heroes' Day in Mozambique[edit]

Heroes' Day is a public holiday in Mozambique on 3rd February.

Heroes' Day in Namibia[edit]

Main article: Heroes' Day (Namibia)

26 August is Heroes' Day in Namibia. It marks the beginning of the armed struggle during the Namibian War of Independence.

National Heroes' Day in the Philippines[edit]

National Heroes Day is a national public holiday in the Philippines to honor the country's heroes (unspecified) and is held on the last Monday of every August[2] to mark the anniversary of the Cry of Pugad Lawin, the beginning of the Philippine Revolution by the Katipunan and its SupremoAndrés Bonifacio in 1896.[citation needed]

Heroes' Day in Romania[edit]

Heroes' Day in Romania is celebrated on the 40th day from the Orthodox Easter. Not a public holiday; observed with military and religious festivities at the monuments dedicated to the national heroes (such as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier).

Heroes Day in Rwanda[edit]

Heroes Day is a public holiday in Rwanda on 1 February.

National Heroes Day in Saint Kitts and Nevis[edit]

Main article: National Heroes Day (Saint Kitts and Nevis)

National Heroes Day in Saint Kitts and Nevis takes place on 16 September, the birthday of national hero Robert Llewellyn Bradshaw.[citation needed]

Heroes' Day in South Africa[edit]

Main article: Heroes' Day (South Africa)

The day was celebrated in the South African Republic and later in the Republic of South Africa.

National Heroes' Day in Sri Lanka[edit]

National Heroes Day in Sri Lanka is celebrated every 22 May. It has been celebrated since 1818 Kandyan rebellion against British invasion in Sri Lanka. This year (2013), 195th commemoration of National Heroes Day of Sri Lanka was held by the sponsorship of the Sri Lankan Government.[citation needed]

National Heroes' Day in Turks and Caicos Islands[edit]

In the Turks and Caicos Islands, National Heroes' Day takes place on the last Monday in May.[3][4]

Heroes' Day in Uganda[edit]

Heroes' Day in Uganda takes place every 9 June.

National Heroes Day in the United Kingdom[edit]

The United Kingdom first celebrated a National Heroes Day in 2011, on 21 October (the same day as the victory at Battle of Trafalgar). It was founded by Danny Glavin, a teacher from Fareham, Hampshire. After hearing about the tragic death of his childhood friend whilst serving in Afghanistan, he decided to fund-raise for a military charity in his memory. The day was endorsed by Prime Minister David Cameron. Now Glavin has founded The Inspiration Federation and coordinates the Heroes Day Educational Programme] within schools across the United Kingdom.[5][6]

Heroes' Day in Zambia[edit]

Heroes' Day in Zambia is a public holiday observed on the first Monday of July. The day honors citizens accorded the status of heroes and heroines.[by whom?] However, this day is more correlated to the Zambia International Trade Fair on which, including Unity Day, employees rest. It is a memorial day for those who perished during the independence struggles.[7]

National Heroes' Day in Zimbabwe[edit]

Heroes' Day in Zimbabwe is a public holiday observed on the second Monday in August.

References[edit]

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