Meaning Of Life Essay Titles On Pride

“Vanity and pride are different things, though the words are often used synonymously. A person may be proud without being vain. Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves, vanity to what we would have others think of us.”

― Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice

“I am not proud, but I am happy; and happiness blinds, I think, more than pride.”

― Alexandre Dumas, The Count of Monte Cristo

“Let others pride themselves about how many pages they have written; I'd rather boast about the ones I've read.”

― Jorge Luis Borges

“I do not care so much what I am to others as I care what I am to myself.”

― Michel de Montaigne

“I would always rather be happy than dignified.”

― Charlotte Brontë, Jane Eyre

“Too many people spend money they earned..to buy things they don't want..to impress people that they don't like.”

― Will Rogers

“A proud man is always looking down on things and people; and, of course, as long as you are looking down, you cannot see something that is above you.”

― C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity

“Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves.”

― Emily Brontë

“It is better to lose your pride with someone you love rather than to lose that someone you love with your useless pride.”

― John Ruskin

“I could easily forgive his pride, if he had not mortified mine.”

― Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice

“Through pride we are ever deceiving ourselves. But deep down below the surface of the average conscience a still, small voice says to us, something is out of tune. ”

― C.G. Jung

“Pride must die in you, or nothing of heaven can live in you.”

― Andrew Murray, Humility

“All men make mistakes, but a good man yields when he knows his course is wrong, and repairs the evil. The only crime is pride.”

― Sophocles, Antigone

“All your life, other people will try to take your accomplishments away from you. Don't you take it away from yourself.”

― Michael Crichton, The Lost World

“We are rarely proud when we are alone.”

― Voltaire

“Don't accept your dog's admiration as conclusive evidence that you are wonderful.”

― Ann Landers

“Pride gets no pleasure out of having something, only out of having more of it than the next man... It is the comparison that makes you proud: the pleasure of being above the rest. Once the element of competition is gone, pride is gone.”

― C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity

“Leave your pride, ego, and narcissism somewhere else. Reactions from those parts of you will reinforce your children's most primitive fears.”

― Henry Cloud

“It is easy to tell the toiler

How best he can carry his pack

But no one can rate a burden's weight

Until it has been on his back”

― Ella Wheeler Wilcox

“Hair is gray and the firers are burning. So many dreams on the shelf. You say I wanted you to be proud of me. I always wanted that myself.”

― Tori Amos

“Pride makes us long for a solution to things – a solution, a purpose, a final cause; but the better telescopes become, the more stars appear.”

― Julian Barnes, Flaubert's Parrot

“The test we must set for ourselves is not to march alone but to march in such a way that others will wish to join us.”

― Hubert Humphrey

“He that is proud eats up himself: pride is his own glass, his own trumpet, his own chronicle.”

― William Shakespeare

“Ignorance and power and pride are a deadly mixture, you know.”

― Robert Fulghum, All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten

“My rule of thumb for hitchhiking is: stick it up straight and proud and make if visible to all drivers.”

― Jarod Kintz, This Book Has No Title

“The test we must set for ourselves is not to march alone but to march in such a way that others will wish to join us.”

― Hubert Humphrey

“Pride is the mother of arrogance.”

― Toba Beta, My Ancestor Was an Ancient Astronaut

“The proud wish God would agree with them. They are not interested in changing their opinions to agree with God's.”

― Ezra Taft Benson

“Pride costs us more than hunger, thirst, and cold.”

― Thomas Jefferson

“Pride is holding your head up when everyone around you has theirs bowed. Courage is what makes you do it.”

― Bryce Courtenay

“Humility is nothing but truth, and pride is nothing but lying.”

― St. Vincent de Paul

“Pride only helps us to be generous; it never makes us so, any more than vanity makes us witty.”

― George Eliot, Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life

“One sticks to an opinion because he prides himself on having come to it on his own, and another because he has taken great pains to learn it and is proud to have grasped it: and so both do so out of vanity.”

― Friedrich Nietzsche

“He understood well enough how a man with a choice between pride and responsibility will almost always choose pride--if responsibility robs him of his manhood.”

― Stephen King, The Running Man

“When you feel nervous, recall your pride.”

― Toba Beta, My Ancestor Was an Ancient Astronaut

“Pride and curiosity are the two scourges of our souls. The latter prompts us to poke our noses into everything, and the former forbids us to leave anything unresolved and undecided.”

― Michel de Montaigne, The Essays: A Selection

“The best lightning rod for your protection is your own spine.”

― Ralph Waldo Emerson

“Because he could not afford to fail, he could not afford to trust.”

― Joseph J. Ellis, His Excellency: George Washington

“Wealth is a gift from God, and pride is bequeathed to us from the devil.”

― Douglas Wilson

“Time and time again does the pride of man influence his very own fall. While denying it, one gradually starts to believe that he is the authority, or that he possesses great moral dominion over others, yet it is spiritually unwarranted. By that point he loses steam; in result, he falsely begins trying to prove that unwarranted dominion by seizing the role of a condemner.”

― Criss Jami, Salomé: In Every Inch In Every Mile

“Boys were so proud - you always had to let them think they were good at things.”

― Diane Zahler, The Thirteenth Princess

“Pride helps us; and pride is not a bad thing when it only urges us to hide our own hurts—not to hurt others.”

― George Eliot, Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life

“The tyrant is a child of Pride

Who drinks from his sickening cup

Recklessness and vanity,

Until from his high crest headlong

He plummets to the dust of hope.”

― Sophocles, Oedipus Rex

“The devil...the prowde spirite...cannot endure to be mocked.”

― Thomas Moore

“Humility and pride will forever battle whenever or wherever love is concerned”

― Jeremy Aldana

“There is no one who would not rather appear to know than to be taught.”

― Quintilian

“You’re not born with a walk like that. You have to earn it.”

― Donna Ball, A Year on Ladybug Farm

“The only way I could endure being a coward was if I was the only one who knew it.”

― Pat Conroy, The Lords of Discipline

“Pride is all very well, but a sausage is a sausage.”

― Terry Pratchett, Men at Arms

“Pride is a wound, and vanity is the scab on it. One's life picks at the scab to open the wound again and again. In men, it seldom heals and often grows septic.”

― Michael Ayrton, The Maze Maker

“Learning to live on less pride has been a great investment in my future.”

― Katerina Stoykova Klemer

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The flags of Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) members

For other uses, see Pride (disambiguation).

Pride is an inwardly directed emotion that carries two antithetical meanings. With a negative connotationpride refers to a foolishly[1] and irrationally corrupt sense of one's personal value, status or accomplishments, used synonymously with hubris. With a positive connotation, pride refers to a humble and content sense of attachment toward one's own or another's choices and actions, or toward a whole group of people, and is a product of praise, independent self-reflection, and a fulfilled feeling of belonging.

In Judaism, pride is called the root of all evil. In Christianity, pride is the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, the father of all sins.

Philosophers and social psychologists have noted that pride is a complex secondary emotion which requires the development of a sense of self and the mastery of relevant conceptual distinctions (e.g. that pride is distinct from happiness and joy) through language-based interaction with others.[2] Some social psychologists identify the nonverbal expression of pride as a means of sending a functional, automatically perceived signal of high social status.[3] In contrast, pride could also be defined as a lowly disagreement with the truth. One definition of pride in the former sense comes from St. Augustine: "the love of one's own excellence".[4] A similar definition comes from Meher Baba: "Pride is the specific feeling through which egoism manifests."[5]

Pride is sometimes viewed as corrupt or as a vice, sometimes as proper or as a virtue. While some philosophers such as Aristotle (and George Bernard Shaw) consider pride (but not hubris) a profound virtue, some world religions consider pride's fraudulent form a sin, such as is expressed in Proverbs 11:2 of the Hebrew Bible. When viewed as a virtue, pride in one's abilities is known as virtuous pride, greatness of soul or magnanimity, but when viewed as a vice it is often known to be self-idolatry, sadistic contempt, vanity or vainglory. Pride can also manifest itself as a high opinion of one's nation (national pride) and ethnicity (ethnic pride).

Etymology[edit]

Proud comes from late Old Englishprut, probably from Old Frenchprud "brave, valiant" (11th century) (which became preux in French), from Late Latin term prodis "useful", which is compared with the Latin prodesse "be of use".[6] The sense of "having a high opinion of oneself", not in French, may reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves "proud".[7]

Philosophical views[edit]

Ancient Greek philosophy[edit]

Aristotle identified pride (megalopsuchia, variously translated as proper pride, greatness of soul and magnanimity)[8] as the crown of the virtues, distinguishing it from vanity, temperance, and humility, thus:

Now the man is thought to be proud who thinks himself worthy of great things, being worthy of them; for he who does so beyond his deserts is a fool, but no virtuous man is foolish or silly. The proud man, then, is the man we have described. For he who is worthy of little and thinks himself worthy of little is temperate, but not proud; for pride implies greatness, as beauty implies a goodsized body, and little people may be neat and well-proportioned but cannot be beautiful.[9]

He concludes then that

Pride, then, seems to be a sort of crown of the virtues; for it makes them more powerful, and it is not found without them. Therefore it is hard to be truly proud; for it is impossible without nobility and goodness of character.[10][11]

By contrast, Aristotle defined the vice of hubris as follows:

to cause shame to the victim, not in order that anything may happen to you, nor because anything has happened to you, but merely for your own gratification. Hubris is not the requital of past injuries; this is revenge. As for the pleasure in hubris, its cause is this: naive men think that by ill-treating others they make their own superiority the greater.[12]

Thus, although pride and hubris are often deemed the same thing, for Aristotle and many philosophers hubris is altogether an entirely different thing from pride.

Psychological views[edit]

As an emotion[edit]

In psychological terms, positive pride is "a pleasant, sometimes exhilarating, emotion that results from a positive self-evaluation".[13] It was added by Tracy et al. to the University of California, Davis, Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE) in 2009, as one of three "self-conscious" emotions known to have recognizable expressions (along with embarrassment and shame).[14]

The term "fiero" was coined by Italian psychologist Isabella Poggi to describe the pride experienced and expressed in the moments following a personal triumph over adversity.[15][16] Facial expressions and gestures that demonstrate pride can involve a lifting of the chin, smiles, or arms on hips to demonstrate victory. Individuals may implicitly grant status to others based solely on their expressions of pride, even in cases in which they wish to avoid doing so. Indeed, some studies show that the nonverbal expression of pride conveys a message that is automatically perceived by others about a person's high social status in a group.[3]

Behaviorally, pride can also be expressed by adopting an expanded posture in which the head is tilted back and the arms extended out from the body. This postural display is innate as it is shown in congenitally blind individuals who have lacked the opportunity to see it in others.[17]

Positive outcomes[edit]

A common understanding of pride is that it results from self-directed satisfaction with meeting the personal goals; for example, Weiner et al. have posited that positive performance outcomes elicit pride in an individual when the event is appraised as having been caused by him alone. Moreover, Oveis et al. conceptualize pride as a display of the strong self that promotes feelings of similarity to strong others, as well as differentiation from weak others. Seen in this light, pride can be conceptualized as a hierarchy-enhancing emotion, as its experience and display helps rid negotiations of conflict.[18] Pride involves exhilarated pleasure and a feeling of accomplishment. It is related to "more positive behaviors and outcomes in the area where the individual is proud" (Weiner, 1985). Pride is generally associated with positive social behaviors such as helping others and outward promotion. Along with hope, it is also often described as an emotion that facilitates performance attainment, as it can help trigger and sustain focused and appetitive effort to prepare for upcoming evaluative events. It may also help enhance the quality and flexibility of the effort expended (Fredrickson, 2001). According to Bagozzi et al., pride can have the positive benefits of enhancing creativity, productivity, and altruism. For instance, it has been found that in terms of school achievement, pride is associated with a higher GPA in low neighborhood socioeconomic environments, whereas in more advantaged neighborhoods, pride is associated with a lower GPA.[19]

In economic psychology[edit]

In the field of economic psychology, pride is conceptualized in a spectrum ranging from "proper pride", associated with genuine achievements, and "false pride", which can be maladaptive or even pathological. Lea et al. have examined the role of pride in various economic situations and claim that in all cases pride is involved because economic decisions are not taken in isolation from one another, but are linked together by the selfhood of the people who take them.[20] Understood in this way, pride is an emotional state that works to ensure that people take financial decisions that are in their long-term interests, even when in the short term they would appear irrational.

Sin and self-acceptance[edit]

See also: Self-esteem § Contingent vs. non-contingent

Exaggerated self-esteem is called "pride".[21] Classical Christian theology views pride as being the result of high self-esteem, and thus high self-esteem was viewed as the primary human problem, but beginning in the 20th century, "humanistic psychology" diagnosed the primary human problem as low self-esteem stemming from a lack of belief in one's "true worth". Carl Rogers observed that most people "regard themselves as worthless and unlovable." Thus, they lack self-esteem.[22]

Terry Cooper conceptualized in 2003 excessive pride (along with low self-esteem) as an important paradigm in describing the human condition. He examines and compares the Augustinian-Niebuhrian conviction that pride is primary, the feminist concept of pride as being absent in the experience of women, the humanistic psychology position that pride does not adequately account for anyone's experience, and the humanistic psychology idea that if pride emerges, it is always a false front designed to protect an undervalued self.[23]

He considers that the work of certain neo-Freudian psychoanalysts, namely Karen Horney, offers promise in dealing with what he calls a "deadlock between the overvalued and undervalued self" (Cooper, 112–3). Cooper refers to their work in describing the connection between religious and psychological pride as well as sin to describe how a neurotic pride system underlies an appearance of self-contempt and low self-esteem:

The "idealized self," the "tyranny of the should," the "pride system" and the nature of self-hate all point toward the intertwined relationship between neurotic pride and self-contempt. Understanding how a neurotic pride system underlies an appearance of self-contempt and low self-esteem. (Cooper, 112–3).

Thus, hubris, which is an exaggerated form of self-esteem, is sometimes actually a lie used to cover the lack of self-esteem the committer of pride feels deeply down.

In the King James Bible, et al., those people exhibiting excess pride are labeled with somewhat archaic "Haughty".

Hubris and group pride[edit]

Main article: Hubris

See also: Group narcissism

Hubris itself is associated with more intra-individual negative outcomes and is commonly related to expressions of aggression and hostility (Tangney, 1999). As one might expect, Hubris is not necessarily associated with high self-esteem but with highly fluctuating or variable self-esteem. Excessive feelings of hubris have a tendency to create conflict and sometimes terminating close relationships, which has led it to be understood as one of the few emotions with no clear positive or adaptive functions (Rhodwalt, et al.).[citation needed]

Several studies by UC Davis psychologist Cynthia Picket about group pride, have shown that groups that boast, gloat or denigrate others tend to become a group with low social status or to be vulnerable to threats from other groups.[24] Suggesting that "hubristic, pompous displays of group pride might actually be a sign of group insecurity as opposed to a sign of strength," she states that those that express pride by being filled with humility whilst focusing on members' efforts and hard work tend to achieve high social standing in both the adult public and personal eyes.

National[edit]

Main article: Nationalism

Germany[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(April 2008)

In Germany, "national pride" ("Nationalstolz") is often associated with the former Nazi regime. Strong displays of national pride are therefore considered poor taste by many Germans. There is an ongoing public debate about the issue of German patriotism. The World Cup in 2006, held in Germany, saw a wave of patriotism sweep the country in a manner not seen for many years. Although many were hesitant to show such blatant support as the hanging of the national flag from windows, as the team progressed through the tournament, so too did the level of support across the nation.[25] By the time the semi-final against Italy came around, the level of national pride and unity was at its highest throughout the tournament, and the hosting of the World Cup is seen to have been a great success for Germany as a nation. After the World Cup, however, the subject of patriotism became again as difficult as it had been before.

Ethnic[edit]

Asian[edit]

Main article: Asian pride

Asian pride in modern slang refers mostly to those of East Asian descent, though it can include anyone of Asian descent. Asian pride was originally fragmented, as Asian nations have had long conflicts with each other, examples are the old Japanese and Chinese religious beliefs of their individual superiority. Asian pride emerged prominently during European colonialism.[26] At one time, Europeans controlled 85% of the world's land through colonialism, resulting in anti-Western feelings among Asian nations.[26] Today, some Asians still look upon European involvement in their affairs with suspicion.[26] In contrast, Asian empires are prominent and are proudly remembered by adherents to Asian Pride.

There is an emerging discourse of Chinese pride which unfolds complex histories and maps of privileges and empowerments. In a deeper sense, it is a strategic positioning, aligned with approaches such as "Asia as method",[27] to invite more diverse resistances in language, culture, and practices, in challenging colonial, imperial dominations, and being critical of Eurocentric epistemologies.[28] In more specific cases, it examines the Sinophone circulations of power relations connecting the transnational to the local, for example, a particular set of Chinese-Canadian relations between China's increasing industrial materiality and output in which pride becomes an expansionist reach and mobilization of capital, Canada's active interests in tapping into Asian and Chinese labours, markets, and industrial productions, and the intersected cultural politics of 'Chinese-ness' in an East Pacific British Columbia city where 'Chinese' has been tagged as a majority-minority.[28]

Black[edit]

Main article: Black pride

Black pride is a slogan used primarily in the United States to raise awareness for a black racial identity. The slogan has been used by African Americans of sub-Saharan African origin to denote a feeling of self-confidence, self-respect, celebrating one's heritage, and being proud of one's personal worth.

White[edit]

Main article: White pride

White pride is a slogan used primarily in the United States for a whiterace identity. This is traditionally closely aligned with white supremacy, white separatism, and other extreme manifestations of white racism.[29]

LGBT[edit]

Main article: Gay pride

Gay pride refers to a worldwide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. LGBT pride advocates work for equal "rights and benefits" for LGBT people.[30][31][32] The movement has three main premises: that people should be proud of their sexual preference and gender identity, that sexual diversity is a gift, and that sexual orientation and gender identity are inherent and cannot be intentionally altered.[33]

The word pride is used in this case an antonym for shame. Pride in this sense is an affirmation of one's self and the community as a whole. The modern "gay pride" movement began after the Stonewall riots of the late 1960s. In June 1970, the first pride parade in the United States commemorated the one-year anniversary of the Stonewall riots—the nearly week-long uprising between New York City youth and police officers following a raid of Stonewall Inn.[34]

Vanity[edit]

Main article: Vanity

In conventional parlance, vanity sometimes is used in a positive sense to refer to a rational concern for one's personal appearance, attractiveness and dress and is thus not the same as pride. However, it also refers to an excessive or irrational belief in one's own abilities or attractiveness in the eyes of others and may in so far be compared to pride. The term Vanity originates from the Latin word vanitas meaning emptiness, untruthfulness, futility, foolishness and empty pride.[35] Here empty pride means a fake pride, in the sense of vainglory, unjustified by one's own achievements and actions, but sought by pretense and appeals to superficial characteristics.

In many religions, vanity is considered a form of self-idolatry, in which one rejects God for the sake of one's own image, and thereby becomes divorced from the graces of God. The stories of Lucifer and Narcissus (who gave us the term narcissism), and others, attend to a pernicious aspect of vanity. In Western art, vanity was often symbolized by a peacock, and in Biblical terms, by the Whore of Babylon. During the Renaissance, vanity was invariably represented as a naked woman, sometimes seated or reclining on a couch. She attends to her hair with comb and mirror. The mirror is sometimes held by a demon or a putto. Other symbols of vanity include jewels, gold coins, a purse, and often by the figure of death himself.

Often we find an inscription on a scroll that reads Omnia Vanitas ("All is Vanity"), a quote from the Latin translation of the Book of Ecclesiastes.[36] Although that phrase, itself depicted in a type of still life, vanitas, originally referred not to obsession with one's appearance, but to the ultimate fruitlessness of man's efforts in this world, the phrase summarizes the complete preoccupation of the subject of the picture.

"The artist invites us to pay lip-service to condemning her", writes Edwin Mullins, "while offering us full permission to drool over her. She admires herself in the glass, while we treat the picture that purports to incriminate her as another kind of glass—a window—through which we peer and secretly desire her."[37] The theme of the recumbent woman often merged artistically with the non-allegorical one of a reclining Venus.

In his table of the seven deadly sins, Hieronymus Bosch depicts a bourgeois woman admiring herself in a mirror held up by a devil. Behind her is an open jewelry box. A painting attributed to Nicolas Tournier, which hangs in the Ashmolean Museum, is An Allegory of Justice and Vanity. A young woman holds a balance, symbolizing justice; she does not look at the mirror or the skull on the table before her. Vermeer's famous painting Girl with a Pearl Earring is sometimes believed to depict the sin of vanity, as the young girl has adorned herself before a glass without further positive allegorical attributes.[38]All is Vanity, by Charles Allan Gilbert (1873–1929), carries on this theme. An optical illusion, the painting depicts what appears to be a large grinning skull. Upon closer examination, it reveals itself to be a young woman gazing at her reflection in the mirror. Such artistic works served to warn viewers of the ephemeral nature of youthful beauty, as well as the brevity of human life and the inevitability of death.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^"Definition of HUBRIS". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-04-03. 
  2. ^Sullivan, GB (2007). "Wittgenstein and the grammar of pride: The relevance of philosophy to studies of self-evaluative emotions". New Ideas in Psychology. 25 (3): 233–252. doi:10.1016/j.newideapsych.2007.03.003. 
  3. ^ abShariff, AF; Tracy, JL (October 2009). "Knowing who's boss: implicit perceptions of status from the nonverbal expression of pride". Emotion. 9: 631–9. doi:10.1037/a0017089. PMID 19803585. 
  4. ^"Est autem superbia amor proprie excellentie, et fuit initium peccati superbia."[1]
  5. ^Baba, Meher (1967). Discourses. 2. San Francisco: Sufism Reoriented. p. 72. ISBN 978-1880619094.
  6. ^Article from Free Online Dictionary, accessed 9 Nov. 2008
  7. ^Article from Online Etymology Dictionary, accessed 20 June 2014
  8. ^The Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle, James Alexander, Kerr Thomson, Hugh Tredennick, Jonathan Barnes translators. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  9. ^Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 4.3Archived December 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.; also available here Sacred Texts – Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and here alternate translation at Perseus
  10. ^Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 4.3Archived December 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^Understanding Philosophy for AS Level AQA, by Christopher Hamilton (Google Books). Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  12. ^AristotleRhetoric 1378b (Greek text and English translation available at the Perseus Project).
  13. ^Lewis, M.; Takai-Kawakami, K.; Kawakami, K.; Sullivan, M. W. (2010). "Cultural differences in emotional responses to success and failure". International Journal of Behavioral Development. 34 (1): 53–61. doi:10.1177/0165025409348559. PMC 2811375. PMID 20161610. 
  14. ^Tracy, J. L.; Robins, R. W.; Schriber, R. A. (2009). "Development of a FACS-verified set of basic and self-conscious emotion expressions". Emotion. 9 (4): 554–559. doi:10.1037/a0015766. 
  15. ^Lazzaro, N. (2004). Why We Play Games: Four Keys to More Emotion Without Story. Retrieved from www.xeodesign.com/xeodesign_whyweplaygames.pdf
  16. ^Language, Body (2010-10-23). "Sincerity Secret # 20: Fiero Feels Good – Mirror Neurons". Body Language Success. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  17. ^Tracy & Matsumoto, 2008.
  18. ^Oveis, C.; Horberg, E. J.; Keltner, D. (2010). "Compassion, pride, and social intuitions of self-other similarity". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 98 (4): 618–630. doi:10.1037/a0017628. PMID 20307133. 
  19. ^Byrd, C. M.; Chavous, T. M. (2009). "Racial identity and academic achievement in the neighborhood context: a multilevel analysis". J Youth Adolescence. 38: 544–559. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9381-9. 
  20. ^Lea, S. E. G.; Webley, P. (1996). "Pride in economic psychology". Journal of Economic Psychology. 18: 323–340. doi:10.1016/s0167-4870(97)00011-1. 
  21. ^"pride, n.1". OED Online. December 2014. Oxford University Press. http://0-www.oed.com.librarycatalog.vts.edu/view/Entry/151185?rskey=L7lc4z&result=1 (accessed December 19, 2014).
  22. ^Terry D. Cooper, Sin, Pride & Self-Acceptance: The Problem of Identity in Theology & Psychology (InterVar sity, 2003), 40, 87, 95.
  23. ^Cooper, T. D. (2003). Sin, pride & self-acceptance: the problem of identity in theology & psychology. Chicago: InterVarsity Press.
  24. ^Study is currently in revision
  25. ^Sullivan, G. B. (2009). Germany during the 2006 World Cup: The role of television in creating a national narrative of pride and "party patriotism". In Castelló, E., Dhoest, A. & O'Donnell, H. (Eds.), The Nation on Screen, Discourses of the National in Global Television. Cambridge Scholars Press: Cambridge.
  26. ^ abcLangguth, Gerd. German Foreign Affairs Review. "Dawn of the 'Pacific' Century?" 1996. June 30, 2007. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 10, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012. 
  27. ^Chen, K. H. (2010). Asia as method: Toward deimperialization. Durham & London: Duke University Press. 
  28. ^ abXiao, Y (2014). "Radical Feelings in the 'Liberation Zone': Active Chinese Canadian Citizenship in Richmond, BC". Citizenship Education Research Journal. 4 (1): 13–28. 
  29. ^Dobratz & Shanks-Meile 2001
  30. ^"Pride celebrated worldwide". www.pridesource.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-28. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  31. ^"GAY PRIDE IN EUROPE LOOKS GLOBALLY". direland.typepad.com. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  32. ^"Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Equality -an Issue for us All". www.ucu.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-12-09. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  33. ^"Gay and Lesbian History Month"(PDF). www.bates.ctc.edu. Archived from the original(PDF) on August 8, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  34. ^"WGBH American Experience - Inside American Experience". American Experience. Retrieved 2016-02-16. 
  35. ^"William Whitaker's Words". 
  36. ^James Hall, Dictionary of Subjects & Symbols in Art (New York: Harper & Row, 1974), 318.
  37. ^Edwin Mullins, The Painted Witch: How Western Artists Have Viewed the Sexuality of Women (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1985), 62–3.
  38. ^http://essentialvermeer.20m.com/cat_about/necklace.htm

References[edit]

  • Cairns, Douglas L (1996). "Hybris, Dishonour, and Thinking Big". Journal of Hellenic Studies. 116: 1–32. doi:10.2307/631953. 
  • Fisher, Nick (1992). Hybris: a study in the values of honour and shame in Ancient Greece. Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips.  A book-length discussion of the meaning and implications of hybristic behavior in ancient Greece.
  • MacDowell, Douglas (1976). "Hybris in Athens". Greece and Rome. 23: 14–31. doi:10.1017/s0017383500018210. 
  • Owen, David (2007) The Hubris Syndrome: Bush, Blair and the Intoxication of Power Politico's, Methuen Publishing Ltd.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Superbia: the Latin word for pride
The Father and Mother by Boardman Robinson depicting War as the offspring of Greed and Pride.
"All Is Vanity" by C. Allan Gilbert, evoking the inevitable decay of life and beauty toward death

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