In Text Citations Extended Essay Topic



The Harvard Style stipulates that you must cite in two places:

  • In the Reference List or Bibliography at the end of the essay/document

  •  In the body of the text of your essay/document, this is called In-text citation

There are two main types of In-text citation:  

Direct quotation: Reproduction of a phrase or passage from a book, articles, report. etc.

Paraphrasing:  A restatement of a text or passage in your own words




In-text citation: Paraphrasing examples

In-text paraphrasing (Idea taken from text but put in different words)

On the subject of employee motivation Evenden and Anderson (1992, p. 45) suggest that in order to improve motivation for appraisal, that an objective for each key area of a job need to be developed

Example two: An In-text paraphrase from a journal article

Information prominent: To measure creativity, some psychologists have generated tests of divergent thinking – the ability to think among many paths to generate multiple solutions to a problem (Diakidoy and Spanoudis, 2002, p.444). 

In-text citation: Further Examples

Author Prominent:  Recent educational research Lewis and Jones (2009, p.23) has shown that........      

or  Hill and Reid in a newly published survey (2010, p. 93), argue that........         

.....Walsh (2009) states that new research on health awareness is of primary importance (p. 88).

Pagination: whether to use a page number

In-Text Citation (Author date, page number) - use this in the body of your paper after a direct quote or when paraphrasing a passage, summarising an idea from a particular page or you want to direct the reader to a specific page. When referencing journal articles do not include a page number

Further notes on pagination

In-text citation: Direct Quotation examples:


As a general rule (which varies depending on subject matter), quotations should be less than 10% of your total word count

When quoting a page or paragraph the page number is always required within the in-text citation


  • Use single quotation marks for quotes.  
  • Double quotation marks for a quoted speech or for a quote within a quote


Examples of In-text citation for quotes:
Example for a single page: (use p.)  
'It would be foolhardy to think that all learning in organizations is planned' (French, 2005, p.123)
Example for a page range (use pp):  
'For organizations, knowledge acquisition is tied up with systems for codifying and disseminating information.' (French, 2005, pp. 140-141)


Example of an extended quote    

If the quotation is of 30 words or over then it should be: (a) On a separate paragraph, (b) In a one size smaller font, (c) Left indented, (d) No quotation marks, (e) Preceded by a full colon.



In speaking of the relationship between empowerment and self-efficacy, French (2005) has this to say: 


The concept of empowerment is founded on the belief that everyone has an internal need for self-determination and a need to cope with environmental demands directly. This suggests that appropriate empowerment strategies can raise the perception of low self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to a person's belief that they can perform adequately in a situation. (p.185)  



In-text referencing for Multiple Authors (3 or more)

2 Authors: 

(Smith and Doheny, 2003, p. 31)

Multiple authors :

You can use the first author surname 'et al.' for in-text citations for multiple authors

However in your full reference you must list all authors - see examples on Tab C of this guide.

According to Critser et al., 'all human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (2003, p. 31)


'All human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (Critser et al., 2003, p. 31) 


In-text citation for a secondary reference

If you refer to a source which you have not read, but which is mentioned in a source you have read, you cite both in your in-text reference but include only the work you have actually read in the full reference list at the end.

In text examples

text....(Allen, 2001 cited in Parker, 2009, p.45)
A study by Allen (2001, cited in Parker, 2009, p. 45) showed that…
according to Allen, 2001 (cited in Parker, 2009, p. 45) there is ample evidence to claim ...

Full Reference example:
In your full list of references you should include only the work you have read, i.e. the primary reference; in this instance 'Parker'.

Parker, N.L. (2009) Strategic management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson South-Western


Two or more documents with the same author and year of publication

These are distinguished by lower-case letters following the year


Wheeler (1961a) describes the process in his study. In a second paper Wheeler (1961b) goes on to further explain...


Referring to two different sources at the same time

(Cooper, 2004; Critser, 2003) 

Note: The sources should be cited chronologically by year of publication with the most recent source first. If more than one work is published in the same year, then they should be listed alphabetically by author/editor.


In-text reference of a chapter in an edited book

Use the author of the chapter and and date of the book in your in text reference

Full reference see Reference format Books 


Note: Inserting Pagination: 

  • When quoting directly, or when using ideas from a specific page or paragraph of a work, the page number(s) should be included in the citation though it is not essential for paraphrasing.
  • If the idea used is a general one that runs through the work then the citation would be of author and date only.
  • Page numbers are not required for in text citation of articles in a journal unless it is a direct quotation
  • If you are quoting from a webpage or source without a page number you do not need to include a page reference
  • You can structure your sentence to include the in-text citation: EG: Critser said in 2003 (p.31) 
  • If there are no page numbers: Count your paragraphs and refer if possible to the paragraph number and/or section heading: (Critser 2003, para. 11) OR (Critser 2003, Introduction, para. 2)

Appendices In-Text Referencing

Example in-text citation for Appendices:

Your Own Appendix

Add your appendix immediately following your reference pages and label it as Appendix A, B, C, etc. Use these labels when discussing the appendix in the body of your paper. In the paper, after the sentence in which you are referencing your appendix, format the in-text citation as (See Appendix A). The letter should match the appropriate appendix label. Do not cite your own appendix on the reference page. If there is only one Appendix just refer to it as Appendix

Another Author's Appendix

When using an appendix from another author, include this information on your reference page. For example, a citation on the reference page for an appendix found in a book should read: Author. (year). Appendix A of Title of work. Location: Publisher. The appendix letter should match the appropriate section you are using.

An in text reference to an appendix can also give some more details:

Example: Inner city mental health care access continues to be a problem (see Appendix for a table showing mental health care access by city).


Figures and tables in the appendices are labeled A1, A2, B1, and so forth, according to the appendix in which they appear. (Note: Omit the letter if there is only one appendix.)

In-Text Citations: The Basics


APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
Last Edited: 2018-02-21 02:50:04

Reference citations in text are covered on pages 169-179 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.

Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found...

APA citation basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining

  • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing Left to Lose.

    (Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)

  • When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
  • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo."
  • Italicize the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.
  • Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Jones's (1998) study found the following:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citingsources. This difficulty could be attributed to thefact that many students failed to purchase astyle manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

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